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At MonoVM we provide you with the underlying facts, assumptions and rules which a computer system has.

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Both Telnet and Secure Shell (i.e. SSH) are network protocols used to connect to remote servers and both have been used widely at different points in time. Telnet is the original protocol that was used when the internet was first launched in 1969. It was developed to be used in private networks and has no security measures, making it irrelevent when used on public networks. This is the main reason why SSH was developed as a replacement for Telnet. We will discuss the differences between telnet and SSH, however lets first understand what each one is.   What is TELNET? Telnet is a...

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Apr, 19

What is DDoS? A DDoS or Distributed-Denial-of-Service attack is an unauthorized attempt to increase the traffic of a targeted server or network by staggering the target or its surrounding infrastructure with a huge amount of internet traffic. A DDoS attack achieves effectiveness by using multiple computer systems as the source of the traffic. In short, a DDoS attack is when hackers attempt to make a website or computer unavailable by flooding or crashing the website with too much traffic. How does a DDoS attack work? A DDoS attack happens when an attacker takes control of a network of...

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Apr, 19

What is the OSI model? The OSI model or Open System Interconnection model is a conceptual model that describes the functionality of the networking system with no regard to the underlying technology infrastructure. The OSI model was introduced in 1984. Here it is divided into seven abstract layers of data communication and standardized protocols into appropriate groups of networking functionality. The purpose of the OSI reference model is to guide vendors and developers so the digital communication products and software programs they create will interoperate, and to facilitate clear...

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Apr, 19

We are used to transmitting data through regular copper wires, however they come with a great deal of disadvantages. The reason for this is that copper wires use electrical signals to transmit data, creating challenges such as signal degradation, electromagnetic interference and low bandwidth limits. At some point in the last century, the entire internet relied on copper wires for worldwide data transmission, however innovation came from a completely unexpected direction. In the 1950s, optical fibers were originally developed for use in endoscopes to help doctors see inside the human body...

In general, most people assume that their bandwidth is their internet speed, however that is not true. It is simply the amount of data they can receive in a second. For example, if your internet provider offers you 100Mbps, it does not mean that you will have a download speed of 100 megabits per second, but that you could possibly receive 100 megabits every second with your connection. Your true internet speed comes from a combination of bandwidth and latency.   What is Latency? Latency is defined as the amount of time it takes to send information from one machine to another. It could...

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Apr, 19

What is a MAC Address? Media Access Control address or commonly known as MAC address is a unique identifier for network interfaces. It is used in most of network technologies as a network address. It’s also called burned-in address (BIA) or Ethernet hardware address (EHA) because it’s a unique identification code which cannot be altered because its embedded into the hardware. Each NIC (network interface card) has its own unique MAC ID which is different from IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. The MAC address is a 8 bit address with 6 different sets of hexadecimal numbers. Few examples are...

In the previous article we discussed what IPv6 is and what features it comes with. In short, IPv6 was introduced to the world as a precaution to the exhaustion of IPv4 addresses. IPv4 being a 32 bit address, IPv6 has a massive 128 bit address space. In this article we will show how to setup IPv6 addresses on Ubuntu. Note that these commands are done on Ubuntu 16.04 LTS.  In order to go through with this setup you will need to be logged in as the root user. Your terminal will look similar to the one below.   If you are not logged in as root user, then in order to login use the...

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Apr, 19

What is IPv6? Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol (IP). IPv6 was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) as a precaution to the exhaustion of IPv4 addresses. Ipv4 was developed in the late 70s and it was the first non-experimental version in the internet. Total amount of addresses allocated by IPv4 is 232 which is about 4 billion unique addresses. IPv6 theoretically allows 2128 addresses (3.4*1038) but actual number is smaller as multiple ranges are reserved for special use or completely excluded from use. IPv6 replaces IPv4...

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Apr, 19

What is CDN?

What is CDN? CDN stands for Content Delivery Network. In short, this is a series of servers located all around the globe which are all linked together.  In order to deliver content on the internet faster, the CDN distributes the assets needed for content to load up such as images, videos, JavaScript files and stylesheets among these servers. These are done in such a way that the content will be geographically near to the users who will access your website, which in turn improves the speed of the connection and reduces the latency. Now-a-days CDN service is gaining popularity and the...

Since its introduction in 1983, IPv4 has been the standard protocol for internet routing, however with the vast expansion of the internet, we have started to run out of the simple binary 32-bit IPv4 addresses. To solve this issue, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) developed the IPv6 protocol and it has been established as an Internet Standard in July of 2017. Its length is much larger at 128-bits, making it nearly impossible to reach address exhaustion. IPv6 also came with many advantages over IPv4, about which you can read here. Now we will demonstrate how to setup IPv6 on Windows...