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What is CLI? We will answer this question in this article. The full form of CLI is Command Line Interface. It is a tool that allows computer users to manage and monitor their system files using some Linux commands. This user interface can be called a command-line UI which is text-based and easy to operate. Command Line interface is available in both Linux and Windows systems though we use it mostly in Linux computers.
However, CLI is not similar to GUI or graphical interface, and there are many differences between these two. GUI is used mostly in the latest operating systems due to its graphical interfaces. But CLI is for everyone. In this post, we will learn what CLI is, how it helps computer users, and a lot more.
For an in-depth understanding of graphical user interfaces and how they contrast with command-line interfaces, check out our detailed guide on What is GUI?.
What is CLI? [Command Line Interface]
CLI is a powerful tool that runs with the help of commands. You put commands from your keyboard to tell the system what to do and based on your commands. Your computer performs specific tasks. Although CLI is so powerful, beginners hardly use it. Some people think that CLI is a tool for advanced users, while in most cases, it can also be used by a beginner. You just have to learn its functions and use cases. We will tell you more about the Command-line interface but let’s find out about its history first.
The History of Command-Line Interface
Before, the mouse was not that popular, and users had to use the keyboard whenever they wanted their PC to work according to their requirements. They simply ran commands on the CLI through the keyboard, and the computer would work according to the commands. The commands differ from action to result. For example, you must use different commands if your computer wants to do a specific task. But if you want your computer to show a result or a specific task, you will use another set of commands.
However, you should be careful while typing the commands because using the wrong commands can create a different result, such as deleting your files. That’s why many users are uncomfortable using the CLI, knowing that the commands should be correct before they are applied. That’s why the mouse was invented to ease the process of managing files and using the computer, and it’s a safer alternative for computer users. Later after some years, GUI was invented too. GUI represents some buttons and menus along with the commands that make initiating a task on your system easier. These buttons and menus represent various individual commands on your Linux Operating systems.
These days, GUI is more popular than CLI, but various computers offer a combination of both command-line tools. You can find CLI in Mac OS, and the system also offers the advantages of GUI, which are more practical and graphical for the users. In CLI, you can add texts to execute tasks in your system, and the commands determine how your computer will function. CLI was the main command line input in the 1970s and 1980s for Unix, MS-DOS, and Apple DOS systems. And even though GUI is more advanced and graphical, software developers still prefer CLI for configuring systems, installing software, using the system administrative rights, and many other features that GUI doesn’t offer.
But CLI is not the most of the command-line interfaces in Windows, Mac OS, and Linux. If you dig deeper into the command line interface history, you will find Shell.
The command line interface, or CLI, is a text-based interface used to control a computer. It allows users to enter commands, which are then executed by the computer.
CLI is often contrasted with graphical user interfaces (GUI), which provide a more visual way to interact with a computer. However, both have their own advantages and disadvantages. For example, CLIs can be faster and more efficient than GUIs for certain tasks, but they can also be more difficult to learn and use.
There are many different types of CLIs, each with its own commands and features. Some common examples include the Windows Command Prompt, the Linux shell, and the macOS Terminal.
Learning the Interface
Assuming you are new to the Command Line Interface (CLI), this section will teach you how to use it. CLI is essentially a way to interact with your computer by typing commands, which it will execute.
You can open up the CLI by opening up your computer's terminal. Once you're in the terminal, you'll be able to type in commands. For example, if you want a list of all the files in the current directory, you would type "ls" and hit enter. This would execute the command and print out a list of all the files in that directory.
Many different commands can be executed in the CLI, and we'll review some of the most basic and essential ones here. Once you learn these commands, you'll be well on using CLI like a pro!
More Basic Commands
There are a few more basic commands that are worth mentioning. The first is the 'pwd' command, which stands for 'print working directory. This command will print the full path of the current directory to the terminal. This can be useful when you need to know exactly where you are in the file system.
The next command is the 'ls' command, which stands for 'list.' This command will list all files and folders in the current directory. You can also add additional arguments to this command to modify its behavior. For example, adding the '-l' argument will cause 'ls' to list the files in long format, which includes additional information such as file size and modification date.
Finally, the 'cd' command is used to change directories. This is probably the most commonly used command after 'ls', as it allows you to navigate around the file system. Simply pass the path of the directory you want to change to as an argument to 'cd'. For example, if you want to change your home directory, use the command 'cd ~'.
Advanced commands are those that go beyond the basic functions of the command line interface. These commands can automate tasks, perform complex operations, or create new programs. While some of these commands may seem daunting at first, they can become second nature with a little practice.
Some common advanced commands include:
- grep: Used for searching through text files for specific patterns.
- sed: Used for performing basic text transformations and substitutions.
- awk: A powerful programming language designed specifically for working with data stored in text files.
- find: Used for finding files based on their name, location, or other criteria.
- xargs: Used for running a command multiple times with different arguments.
- chmod: Used for changing the permissions on a file or directory.
- sudo: Used for running a command as another user, usually the root user.
What is Shell?
Shell is also a user interface that processes all the commands you type in the command-line interface. Shell will read and interpret the commands and guide your computer to perform the tasks you are commanding. Shell manages the CLI and works as a bridge between the computer and its user. You can manage files and directories using a shell, open and close a window, manage system processes, perform various tasks on repeat, and more. There are many types of shells, but Windows shells and Bash shells are the most common ones. As you can imagine, Windows shell is for Windows operating systems, and bash is for Linux and Mac OS. Let’s see how these shells work by getting to know them better.
We know the Windows shell as Command Prompt, and its executable file is CMD.exe. Microsoft has used Command Prompt since MS-DOS was more popular than Windows. Opening Command Prompt in Windows is easy. You can open the run box by pressing the Windows +R buttons together, typing CMD in the field, and hitting Enter. Alternatively, you can go to Start and All Programs, click on Accessories, then open Command Prompt.
In Windows Shell, you can type a command that will run on the black command prompt window to perform the task for you. Depending on your requirement, you can either type a single command on the CMD window or a combination of commands. The commands will run in a sequence where one command will be executed after another. With the command prompt, you can monitor and manage several things on your Windows computer, including:
- Modifying directories, listing directories, listing content, and more
- Managing IP network settings and other network configurations
- Renaming or removing files
- Modifying media, such as formatting and renaming the media files, etc.
You can perform these tasks with the help of some syntaxes on your command prompt window. Here are the tasks and their syntax:
- To change a directory: Use the CD [path] to go to a specific directory from the command prompt. You must include a space before the path, such as CD C:\Program Files.
- To rename a file: Use the REN [drive:][path] [source] [target] command combination to rename a file within a specific folder. For example, REN d:untitled.txt untitled1.txt. The renamed file will be saved in the location you accessed it.
- Removing a file: Use the DEL [filename] command in the command prompt to delete a file. You can add the force deletion option before the file name, like this DEL /F untitled.txt. F stands for force deletion.
- To rename a volume disk: Use the LABEL [drive:][new volume name] command to rename a specific volume disk from the command prompt. For example: D:\ > LABEL d:MyData. You can use 32 characters on the NTFS volume and 11 characters on the FAT volume.
But if you are using Mac OS or Linux, your command prompt interface should be Bash, with new commands.
Bash Shell’s full form is Bourne Again Shell, which is often seen in Mac OS and Linux distributions. If your machine does not have the in-built bash, you can install it on your own. The most common bash shells are Tchs shell, Ksh shell, and Zsh shell, which you will find in the utility window in your Linux distro. Gnome desktop users know the Bash shell as Terminal, and KDE users know the Bash as Konsole.
Mac users know Bash as Terminal.app, and you can run it from Application -> Utilities -> Terminal. Alternatively, go to Spotlight search and enter the terminal to find the program. In the terminal window, you can type a command consisting of the command, the argument, and the options. In the command, it will be the instructions you want to perform for a specific task, and the argument will clarify where the command should work, and the option will allow you to modify the output.
To know how to use bash, you need to learn a few commands to deal with the shell, which we call shell scripting. The commands have two categories: one handles the tasks, and the other category handles the files. Here are the tasks you can perform in Mac OS using Bash:
- To list all the files in a folder: You can use ls to know what files are under a specific folder, and even the hidden files will be visible after using this command. You can add -a to list all the files, including the hidden ones, like this: ls -a.
- To change a directory: Use cd destination to move to a particular directory like this: cd ~/Desktop.
- To rename a file: Use the mv source destination to rename a file in a folder. Remember the name of the file and its extension, which can be like this: mv ~/Desktop/untitled.rtf ~/Desktop/untitled1.rtf
- To delete a file: Use the rm filename to delete a file in a particular folder from your Bash shell. You need to go to the right folder location to ensure you are not deleting the wrong file. For example, rm untitled.rtf.
Whenever you are typing a command on either Windows shell or bash shell, notice the characters you are typing. A slight mistake can dislocate the file or even remove it forever from your device. That’s why we recommend you use copy commands using Control+C and paste them in the command shell with Control+V so that there is no mistake. Do the same with the file and location names as well.
Difference Between CLI and GUI
GUI interface is the graphical interface that is more popular than CLI in today’s technology. GUI is used in the Windows menu and icons that execute commands. In GUI, the mouse is the easiest way to control the user interface, but many GUIs offer navigation and execution of tasks through the keyboards of the machine. Microsoft Word is a GUI-based software where you can also change layouts or execute tasks through the mouse and keyboard. The best thing about GUI is it has a graphical representation. This means you can see the features and options visually rather than having to use commands to use them.
The simplicity of GUI does not give the users as many features and options as Command-Line interfaces do. For example, you will have to do a lot of mouse strokes to execute a task that a simple command could do. Also, you cannot do scripting or automation of tasks with GUI, and you will have to repeat each click of the mouse to perform the same task over and over.
That’s why many software developers use CLI more than GUI because CLI consumes less time in the configurations and development of software. If you can take care of the commands properly, CLI will save you a lot of time and effort though it takes a little time to get used to it.
Advantages and Disadvantages of CLI
Here are some of the advantages and disadvantages of CLI that you should consider:
- It lets you control your OS and applications thoroughly
- Manages a large number of operating systems faster than GUI
- You can store scripts to automate the same tasks repeatedly
- You can troubleshoot networking problems and more with basic command-line knowledge
- GUI is easier to use
- You need to memorize the commands in CLI
- You cannot make any mistakes while using commands
- Different shells use different commands
We learned what is CLI, but there is so much debate between CLI and GUI. CLI will always be the better interface. It’s powerful, handles tasks repeatedly, saves time, and is advanced. Even when you use GUI on your OS, you might have to use Command Line Interface in different scenarios, coding, for example. And not to mention that without coding, you cannot develop proper software. You will have to memorize the commands in CLI to learn the better use of the interface, and though it’s going to take some time when you are used to it, it will be worth it.
Therefore, you can be productive and fast with CLI rather than simple and easy with GUI.
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