List of content you will read in this article:
What is a host-name?
To identify hosts or servers in a network, each Linux server is assigned a name called host-name. It’s simply a name given to your Linux machine. When you install any Linux distribution, it will ask you to enter a username and a hostname for the first time. At any point in time, if you wish to change the hostname for any purpose, you can easily do so in just a few steps. However, please note that you should never assign the same hostname to multiple Linux servers in the same network.
There are some rules when it comes to what name can you assign as a hostname to a server in the network. A hostname can contain digits, lowercase letters, hyphens, and dots. But please make sure that a hostname must start and end with either a number or a letter. They must contain at least 2 characters and at most 63 characters.
Displaying the Current Hostname
When you open a terminal, you will find the following structure at the beginning of every command.
To display the current hostname in the terminal, you can use the hostname command.
The Linux Systems also store the current hostname in a separate file inside the etc directory - /etc/hostname. You can use the cat or less command to display the contents of this file which will give you the hostname.
$ cat /etc/hostname
Changing hostname in Ubuntu and other Debian-based Distros
If you own a Debian-based Linux distribution such as Ubuntu, Linux-Mint, etc., you can use either a command-line method or a GUI-based method to change your hostname. We will discuss two methods to change hostname using the command-line in this article.
Method 1. Using systemd tools
We can use systemd tools to change the hostname along with some other similar type of information. Let’s use the following command first to get the current information.
You can see information such as hostname, OS, kernel, Machine ID, Boot ID, etc.
We can use the following hostnamectl command to change your current username.
$ hostnamectl set-hostname <new>
You can see that the static hostname has been changed successfully. If you restart your terminal, you will see the changes reflected there as well.
Method 2. Using hostname command
You can also use the hostname command to change your hostname in Debian-based Linux Distributions.
$ sudo hostname <new>
You will need sudo privileges to use this command. Restart the terminal to see the changes. However, using this command, the changes will be made temporarily. This means that once you restart your machine, the old hostname will be restored.
If you want to change your hostname permanently, you need to make the required changes in the following files - /etc/hostname and /etc/hosts. These are the two files where the Debian-based Linux distros stores information related to the hostnames. We can edit these files straight through the command-line using editors such as vim and nano.
$ vi /etc/hostname
$ vi /etc/hosts
Once you have made changes in these files, it will be done permanently.
Changing hostname in CentOS/RHEL 7 or 8
If you use a Redhat-based Linux Distribution like CentOS, you can use the following three methods to change your hostname.
You can use the same hostnamectl command that we used for Debian-based Linux distributions to change the hostname in Redhat-based Linux distros as well. In fact, this command holds true for all Linux distros that use systemd.
First, let’s display the current hostname using any of the following commands.
# hostname -s
# hostname -f
# cat /etc/hostname
The second command uses the -s option which tells the command to print only the short name or the hostname of the computer. The -f option will print the FQDN if it’s a part of a domain. The next command will print the contents of the hostname file which stores the hostname of the Linux machine. We can additionally use the hostnamectl command to print the hostname.
We can now use the following command to change the hostname in CentOs 7, 8, or any other Redhat-based Linux Distro.
# hostnamectl set-hostname <new>
Now, to apply these changes, just reboot the system using the following command.
# shutdown -r
You can also edit the file called /etc/hostname and write your new hostname in any CentOS machine.
# vi /etc/hostname
Just reboot the system again to see the changes.
The Linux Kernel maintains a transient hostname as an auxiliary server name along with the conventional static hostname. We can use the Linux sysctl to change the transient hostname.
# sysctl kernel.hostname
You can use the above command to display the current transient hostname.
# sysctl kernel.hostname=new-hostname
# sysctl -w kernel.hostname=new-hostname
The above commands can also be used to set a new hostname.
In this comprehensive guide, we started with a basic introduction to discuss what are hostnames in Linux machines and what purpose do they serve. We also discussed a few methods that we can use to display the current hostname in Linux servers. We then discussed a general method that can be used to change the hostnames in any type of Linux Distribution whether Debian-based, RHEL-based, etc. We then discussed separated methods to change the hostnames in Debian-based distributions such as Ubuntu, Linux Mint, etc. We can also set the hostnames using a GUI-based method by moving to the user settings. We also discussed a few methods to change the hostname for RHEL-based distributions such as CentOS 7, 8, etc.
There might be several reasons why you would want to change the hostname of your Linux server in a network. Regardless of all those reasons, changing hostnames are quite easy and can be done in just a few steps only. We hope that this comprehensive guide serves its purpose and you can now change your hostnames easily.