SSD vs HDD – Which One is Better & What's the Difference?

Explore the definitive guide on 'SSD vs HDD: The Ultimate Comparison' to understand the key differences in speed, durability, energy efficiency, and cost. This comprehensive report delves into the advantages and disadvantages of Solid State Drives (SSDs) and Hard Disk Drives (HDDs), offering insights into which storage solution best suits your technology needs. Perfect for tech enthusiasts, IT professionals, and consumers seeking to enhance their computing experience with the right storage technology.

Updated: 11 Feb, 24 by Susith Nonis 30 Min

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SSDs and HDDs are two types of computer storage drives. They store data differently and have their own pros and cons. If you're wondering which one to choose, it depends on how you use your computer. Most modern laptops and desktops use SSDs as the main boot drive, while budget machines may still use HDDs. Understanding the differences between SSDs and HDDs can help you make the right choice for your storage needs. In this blog post we share all the things you need to know about SSD vs. HDD. Keep reading!

SSD, short for Solid State Drive, is a storage device that operates differently from a traditional HDD. Instead of using rotating platters, it employs a solid-state medium, typically NAND flash memory. The data transfer in a SSD is managed by a controller, which acts as the device's central processing unit.

One of the key advantages of a SSD is its fast access time, as there is no variable seek time or rotational latency like in a HDD. While SSD read speeds are generally fast, write speeds can be slower. This is because SSD storage consists of individual NAND cells, where each cell can store one bit of data. These cells are organized into pages, and groups of pages form blocks.

Advantages of SSD

Using a SSD drive comes with several advantages, including:

  • Enhanced Performance: SSD drives offer incredibly fast access speeds, ranging from 35 to 100 microseconds. This allows them to deliver performance that is up to 100 times faster than traditional HDDs.
  • Mobility: SSDs are designed with lightweight components and lack moving parts, making them highly suitable for mobile devices and frequent travelers. They provide reliable storage without being weighed down.
  • Durability: SSD drives are known for their resistance and durability. By eliminating the mechanical components found in HDDs, SSDs are less prone to damage from shocks, vibrations, and physical impacts.
  • Reliable Storage: SSDs utilize flash memory to store data, which provides better reliability compared to magnetic platters used in HDDs. This ensures that your data is securely stored and readily accessible.

Disadvantages of SSD

There are some drawbacks to consider when using a SSD:

  • Higher Upfront Cost: SSDs generally have a higher initial cost compared to HDDs. The price per gigabyte of storage is typically higher for SSDs, which can be a limiting factor for budget-conscious users.
  • Limited Write Endurance: SSDs have a finite number of times that data can be written, erased, and rewritten to a specific portion of the drive. This limitation, known as write endurance, means that over time, the performance and lifespan of the SSD may be affected.
  • Limited Maximum Capacity: SSDs have a maximum storage capacity that is generally lower than that of HDDs. However, it's worth noting that advancements in flash memory technology continue to increase the storage capacity of SSDs over time.

Hard disk drives (HDDs) have been a reliable technology for over 50 years. They use spinning platters to read and write data, with each platter having an actuator arm and a read/write head. An I/O controller and firmware help manage the hardware and communicate with the system. The platters are divided into tracks and sectors, allowing for organized storage and retrieval of data. The speed at which the platters spin determines the read/write rates of a HDD, with higher speeds resulting in faster performance.

HDDs utilize magnetism to store data on the rotating platter. The read/write head hovers above the platter to access the data. The I/O controller and firmware play a crucial role in coordinating the hardware and system communication. The faster the platter spins, the quicker the HDD can operate.

Advantages of HDD

HDDs offer several advantages, including:

  • Large storage capacity: HDDs provide ample space for storing data, including text documents, images, videos, and more.
  • Data retention: Even when the computer is shut down, the data stored on HDDs remains intact.
  • Secure placement: Since HDDs are fixed inside the computer, they are not prone to getting misplaced or lost.
  • Easy communication: Computers can seamlessly interact with HDDs, facilitating smooth data transfer.
  • Versatile storage: HDDs can store various types of files, including operating system files and software-related data.
  • Compact and portable: Despite their storage capabilities, HDDs are small in size and can be easily carried around.
  • Cost-effective: HDDs are generally more affordable compared to SSDs, making them a budget-friendly choice.

Disadvantages of HDD

Here are the disadvantages of using HDDs:

  • System failure: If the hard disk crashes, the computer will cease to function.
  • Data loss risk: If the HDD drive crashes or gets damaged, you may lose valuable data.
  • Challenging data recovery: In the event of a hard disk failure, performing data recovery can be difficult.
  • Vulnerable to crashes: Regular "head" crashes can occur, resulting in damage to the disk surface.
  • Limited transferability: Since the hard disk is fixed inside the computer, it cannot be easily transferred to another system.

differences between SSD and HDD

Here are the differences between HDD and SSD in a table:


Hard Disk Drive (HDD)

Solid State Drive (SSD)

Storage Capacities

HDD is available in a wide range of storage capacities, allowing for high-capacity storage solutions.

SSD offers limited storage capacities compared to HDD, but it still provides ample storage for most users.

Data Transfer Speed

HDD offers slower data transfer speeds compared to SSD, resulting in longer read and write times.

SSD provides faster data transfer speeds, significantly reducing read and write times for improved performance.


Over time, HDDs may experience fragmentation, which can impact performance and require periodic optimization.

SSDs do not suffer from fragmentation issues, as they don't rely on physical disk mechanisms for data access.

Impact of Fragmentation

Fragmentation can negatively affect the performance of HDDs, leading to slower read and write operations.

SSDs remain unaffected by fragmentation, maintaining consistent performance throughout their lifespan.

I/O Operations Per Second (IOPS)

HDDs have lower IOPS capability, resulting in limitations when it comes to handling simultaneous input/output operations.

SSDs offer higher IOPS capability, allowing for faster and more efficient handling of concurrent input/output operations.


HDDs exhibit higher latency due to the mechanical nature of their operations, resulting in slower response times.

SSDs have lower latency, enabling quicker access to stored data and faster system responsiveness.

Mechanical Parts

HDDs consist of moving mechanical parts, including spinning disks and read/write heads, which are susceptible to wear and mechanical failure.

SSDs do not contain any moving parts, making them more resistant to physical damage and less prone to mechanical failures.

Vulnerability to Damage

HDDs are more vulnerable to damage from external factors like vibration, which can lead to performance degradation or even complete failure.

SSDs are more resilient to damage caused by vibration or shocks, ensuring data integrity and system stability.


HDDs are relatively heavier due to the presence of rotating disks and mechanical components.

SSDs are lightweight as they do not require rotating disks, making them ideal for portable devices and reducing overall system weight.

Noise Production

HDDs generate noise during their operation due to the mechanical movements of spinning disks and read/write heads.

SSDs operate silently since they do not rely on mechanical components, resulting in noiseless computing environments.

Form Factors

HDDs are commonly available in 3.5" and 2.5" form factors, suitable for desktop and laptop installations, respectively.

SSDs are available in various form factors, including 2.5", 1.8", and 1.0", providing flexibility for different device types and compact designs.

Failure Probability

HDDs have a higher probability of failure due to the presence of moving parts, which are prone to wear and mechanical breakdowns over time.

SSDs have a lower probability of failure as they do not have moving parts, offering increased reliability and durability.

Read and Write Time

HDDs exhibit longer read and write times compared to SSDs, resulting in slower overall performance.

SSDs offer shorter read and write times, significantly improving data access speed and overall system responsiveness.

Drive Type

HDDs are the older and more traditional type of storage drive that has been widely used for several decades.

SSDs are a newer and rapidly evolving storage technology that offers numerous advantages over traditional HDDs.

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Energy Consumption and Heat Generation

The environmental footprint of storage devices is significantly influenced by their energy consumption and heat generation. Solid State Drives (SSDs) are renowned for their efficiency in both areas. Unlike Hard Disk Drives (HDDs), which rely on spinning disks and moving read/write heads, SSDs have no moving parts. This fundamental difference means SSDs require less power to operate, leading to lower energy consumption and minimal heat generation. Consequently, SSDs contribute to a greener computing environment by reducing the demand on cooling systems, which further lowers energy usage.

Overall Environmental Footprint

When evaluating the overall environmental footprint of SSDs versus HDDs, it's essential to consider the production and disposal phases. SSDs, while more energy-efficient during operation, can be more resource-intensive to manufacture. The production of NAND flash memory chips, central to SSDs, involves sophisticated processes that may have a higher environmental impact than the manufacturing of traditional HDDs. However, the durability and longer lifespan of SSDs can mitigate some of these initial environmental costs over time. On the disposal front, the electronic waste impact of both SSDs and HDDs is a concern, but the smaller size and lack of hazardous materials in SSDs may slightly lessen their environmental burden compared to HDDs.

Security Features and Encryption

Data security is paramount in today's digital age, and both SSDs and HDDs offer various security features. SSDs often have built-in encryption capabilities that can provide a higher level of data security compared to HDDs. The encryption process in SSDs is integrated into the drive's controller, offering automatic and transparent encryption without impacting performance significantly. This feature is particularly beneficial for sensitive data and mobile devices that are more susceptible to loss or theft.

Data Recovery Challenges

While SSDs excel in data security, they present unique challenges in data recovery. The TRIM feature in SSDs, which enhances performance by wiping blocks of data no longer in use, can make data recovery nearly impossible once the data is trimmed. HDDs, on the other hand, retain deleted data until it's overwritten, allowing for more straightforward data recovery in many cases. However, the mechanical nature of HDDs means they're more prone to physical failures, which can complicate recovery efforts. Advanced data recovery techniques and professional services are often required to retrieve lost data from both types of drives, with varying degrees of success.

Advancements in SSD Technology

The storage industry continues to evolve rapidly, with SSD technology at the forefront of innovation. One of the most significant advancements is the development of 3D NAND flash memory, which stacks memory cells vertically. This design increases storage capacity and efficiency while reducing costs, making high-capacity SSDs more accessible. Additionally, the adoption of Non-Volatile Memory Express (NVMe) interfaces is another trend enhancing SSD performance. NVMe allows for higher throughput and lower latency compared to traditional SATA connections, unlocking the full potential of SSDs in high-performance computing environments.

Impact of Quantum Computing

Looking further into the future, quantum computing holds the potential to revolutionize storage technology. Quantum computers, with their ability to process vast amounts of data at unprecedented speeds, may require new types of storage solutions that can keep pace. While still in the early stages of development, quantum storage technologies could offer vastly superior data density and access speeds. The integration of quantum computing and storage technologies could enable breakthroughs in data processing, artificial intelligence, and complex simulations, fundamentally changing how data is stored and accessed.

The choice between Solid State Drives (SSD) and Hard Disk Drives (HDD) can significantly affect overall system performance. SSDs, with their lack of moving parts, offer superior speed compared to HDDs, which rely on mechanical parts and spinning disks. This section explores how each type of drive impacts system performance, focusing on boot times, application loading, and system responsiveness.

Boot Times

SSDs dramatically reduce boot times for computers. Because they access data instantly without needing to spin up a disk, systems with SSDs can start up in seconds rather than the minutes sometimes required by HDDs. This quicker access to the operating system and startup applications enhances user convenience and efficiency.

Application Loading

Application loading times are significantly faster with SSDs. Programs stored on an SSD can launch almost instantly, thanks to the drive’s rapid data access capabilities. This is particularly noticeable with software that requires heavy data processing, such as video editing suites or large databases. In contrast, HDDs may cause a noticeable delay when launching and using heavy applications, as the drive must physically locate the data on the spinning disk.

System Responsiveness

System responsiveness, including the time it takes to open files, save documents, and perform system backups, is greatly improved with SSDs. The immediate data access provided by SSDs results in a smoother, more responsive computing experience. HDDs, with their inherent latency due to mechanical movement, can make systems feel sluggish, especially under heavy loads or when multitasking.

Upgrading from an HDD to an SSD is one of the most effective ways to enhance system performance. However, there are several considerations to ensure a smooth upgrade process, including hardware compatibility, cloning software, and potential firmware updates.

Hardware Compatibility

Before upgrading, verify that your computer's motherboard supports SSDs. Most modern computers do, but older systems may require a SATA interface or an adapter for NVMe SSDs. Additionally, consider the physical size of the SSD (2.5-inch for most laptops and desktops) and whether additional mounting brackets are needed for desktop installations.

Cloning Software

To transfer your existing system and files to the new SSD, cloning software can be used to create an exact copy of your HDD. This process simplifies the transition, avoiding the need for a fresh operating system installation and manual data transfer. Many SSD manufacturers offer proprietary cloning software, or third-party options are available.

Firmware Updates

After installation, check if your SSD requires firmware updates to ensure optimal performance and compatibility with your system. Manufacturers often release firmware updates to improve drive performance, add new features, or fix bugs. Regularly checking for and applying these updates can enhance the SSD’s longevity and reliability.

When comparing the lifespan of Solid State Drives (SSDs) and Hard Disk Drives (HDDs), several factors come into play, significantly affecting their durability and operational life.

Durability and Wear

SSDs have no moving parts, which contributes to their durability and resistance to physical shock. They're less susceptible to damage from drops or vibrations, making them more reliable in mobile devices or environments where physical impact is a concern. However, SSDs are subject to wear and tear at the memory cell level. Each cell in an SSD can only be written to a finite number of times before it becomes unreliable. Modern SSDs, though, employ wear leveling and other technologies to distribute writes evenly across the drive, extending their useful life.

Lifespan Considerations

HDDs, on the other hand, use mechanical parts like spinning disks and read/write heads, which are more prone to failure over time, especially in environments with physical shocks or vibrations. However, they are not affected by the write cycle limitations that SSDs face. The lifespan of an HDD is typically determined by its mechanical wear and tear rather than write cycles.

Overall, SSDs may have a shorter theoretical lifespan due to write cycle limits, but in practice, they often outlast HDDs because they're less susceptible to mechanical failure. The actual lifespan of either type of drive will depend on usage patterns, with SSDs generally providing more reliability and stability for most users.

The choice between SSDs and HDDs can also have a significant impact on gaming performance, affecting everything from game load times to the overall responsiveness of the gaming system.

Game Load Times

SSDs offer significantly faster read and write speeds than HDDs, which translates into shorter game load times. This means games stored on an SSD will start faster, and in-game loading screens will be significantly reduced, providing a smoother gaming experience. For gamers who value quick access to their games and minimal interruption, an SSD is the preferred choice.

System Responsiveness and Game Performance

While SSDs do not directly affect the frame rate of games, they contribute to overall system responsiveness, reducing stutter and lag during gameplay when the game accesses data. This is particularly noticeable in open-world games that constantly load new textures and environments as the player moves through the game world.

Capacity and Cost Considerations

HDDs, while slower, offer much larger storage capacities at a lower cost. This can be an advantage for gamers with extensive game libraries, as the cost per gigabyte of storage is significantly lower with HDDs. However, with the decreasing cost of SSDs and the introduction of high-capacity models, many gamers opt for a hybrid approach, installing an SSD for their operating system and frequently played games, and an HDD for additional storage needs.

In conclusion, for gamers prioritizing fast load times and a seamless gaming experience, SSDs are the superior choice. However, for those needing extensive storage on a budget, HDDs or a combination of both might be the best solution.

The storage technology market is witnessing significant shifts, influenced by evolving consumer preferences and technological advancements. SSDs are becoming increasingly popular due to their performance benefits, despite traditionally being more expensive per gigabyte than HDDs.

Adoption of SSDs

The demand for faster computing has driven a surge in SSD adoption, both in consumer electronics and enterprise systems. SSD prices have steadily decreased, making them more accessible to a broader audience. Consumers now often prefer SSDs for new computers or upgrades due to their speed, durability, and energy efficiency.

HDD Market Niche

Despite the rise of SSDs, HDDs maintain a niche in the market, particularly for applications requiring large storage capacities at a lower cost. HDDs continue to be favored for external backups, network-attached storage (NAS) devices, and as secondary storage in systems where the operating system and applications reside on an SSD.

Future Storage Technologies

Innovation in storage technology is not limited to SSDs and HDDs. Emerging technologies, such as 3D XPoint (used in Intel’s Optane memory) and future non-volatile memory solutions, promise to further blur the lines between memory and storage. These advancements could lead to storage solutions with the speed of RAM but the permanence and capacity of traditional storage drives.

Consumer preferences for faster, more durable, and energy-efficient storage options are shaping the future of storage technology. As SSDs become more affordable and their capacities continue to grow, they are likely to become the dominant storage solution for both consumer and enterprise use, further influenced by ongoing technological innovations.

For those interested in leveraging the speed and efficiency of NVMe SSDs in a virtual private server environment, exploring NVMe VPS solutions can offer unparalleled performance for your web applications and services. NVMe technology enhances data access speeds significantly, making it an ideal choice for high-performance computing needs.

Solid State Drives (SSDs) have evolved significantly, offering various types tailored to different needs and applications. Understanding the different SSD types helps in choosing the right one for specific use cases, balancing performance, capacity, and price.


Serial ATA (SATA) SSDs are among the most common and are compatible with the SATA interface, used by most desktops and laptops. They offer a significant performance improvement over HDDs but are generally slower than newer SSD technologies. SATA SSDs are ideal for general computing and upgrades in older systems without NVMe support.


Non-Volatile Memory Express (NVMe) SSDs utilize the PCIe interface, offering substantially higher throughput and lower latency than SATA SSDs. NVMe drives are best suited for intensive applications such as gaming, video editing, and high-performance computing where speed is critical.

M.2 SSDs

M.2 is a form factor and can support both SATA and NVMe interface standards. M.2 SSDs are compact and slot directly into the motherboard, saving space and eliminating the need for cables. They are popular in laptops and small form factor (SFF) PCs due to their size and speed, especially with NVMe support.

Portable SSDs

Portable SSDs offer the speed and durability of internal SSDs but in a compact, external format. They connect via USB, Thunderbolt, or Wi-Fi, providing fast, portable storage for users who need to transfer large files between devices or carry their data on the go.

Benchmarking tools are essential for evaluating the performance of SSDs under various conditions. These tools can test read/write speeds, IOPS (Input/Output Operations Per Second), and endurance, providing valuable insights into how an SSD will perform in real-world scenarios.


CrystalDiskMark is a widely used benchmarking tool that measures sequential and random read/write speeds. It's user-friendly and provides a quick overview of an SSD's performance, making it popular among consumers and professionals alike.

AS SSD Benchmark

AS SSD Benchmark is designed specifically for SSD testing. It evaluates SSD performance using several tests, including sequential read/write speed, access time, and file copy speed. AS SSD Benchmark also includes a compression benchmark that tests the performance of SSDs with data of varying compressibility.

ATTO Disk Benchmark

ATTO Disk Benchmark measures storage systems' performance with various transfer sizes and test lengths for reads and writes. It's widely used in the industry to test all types of drives, including HDDs, SSDs, and RAID arrays. ATTO provides detailed performance graphs and can be configured for thorough testing.

The "best" SSD drive often depends on specific needs, including performance, capacity, durability, and price. However, some SSDs stand out for their exceptional performance and reliability.

Samsung 970 EVO Plus

The Samsung 970 EVO Plus is renowned for its high speed, reliability, and excellent software support. It's an NVMe SSD that offers top-tier performance for gaming, professional work, and heavy multitasking.

Western Digital Blue SN550

For those seeking value, the Western Digital Blue SN550 is an NVMe SSD that provides excellent performance at a more affordable price point than many competitors. It's suitable for general use and gaming, offering a solid balance between speed and cost.

Crucial MX500

A top choice among SATA SSDs, the Crucial MX500 delivers consistent performance and durability. It includes features like integrated power loss immunity and hardware encryption, making it a reliable option for a wide range of applications.

Portable SSD: SanDisk Extreme Portable SSD

For portable storage, the SanDisk Extreme Portable SSD offers high-speed transfers, durability, and a compact form factor. It's ideal for transferring large files and provides added security with password protection and hardware encryption.

Each of these SSDs caters to different user needs, from high-end performance to budget-friendly options and portable solutions. When selecting an SSD, consider the specific requirements of your workload, device compatibility, and budget to find the best fit.


In summary, hard drives (HDDs) outshine in terms of price and capacity, whereas solid-state drives (SSDs) excel in speed, ruggedness, form factor, noise, and fragmentation. If cost and storage limitations were not a concern, SSDs would be the clear winner. HDDs are most suitable for:

  • Enthusiast multimedia users and heavy downloaders: HDDs provide ample storage space at an affordable price, making them ideal for users who need to store large amounts of videos, photos, and other multimedia files.
  • Budget buyers: HDDs offer a cost-effective solution for those purchasing lower-priced PCs. They provide larger storage capacities at a more affordable price compared to SSDs.
  • Graphic arts and engineering professionals: Professionals in these fields often work with large file sizes, such as high-resolution images and videos. HDDs are suitable for their needs as they can accommodate large amounts of data and allow for faster storage expansion at a lower cost compared to SSDs.
  • General users with extensive local media collections: Users who prefer to download or store a significant amount of their own media files locally, such as music and videos, will benefit from the larger storage capacities offered by HDDs.

SSDs are best suited for specific user groups, including:

  • Road warriors and field workers: Individuals who frequently travel or work in environments where their laptops may experience rough handling benefit from the extra security and durability provided by SSDs. SSDs can withstand physical shocks better than traditional hard drives.
  • Speed enthusiasts: Users who prioritize fast performance and quick access to data should opt for SSDs. SSDs offer faster boot-ups, application launches, and data transfer speeds compared to traditional hard drives.
  • Graphic arts and engineering professionals: SSDs can significantly improve productivity for professionals working with large files in graphic arts and engineering. The increased speed of SSDs allows for faster file access, editing, and rendering, leading to quicker project completion.
  • Audio engineers and musicians: SSDs are preferable for recording and mastering music due to their silent operation. Unlike hard drives, SSDs produce no noise or vibrations, ensuring a clean audio recording environment.

In the near future, traditional hard disk drives (HDDs) are expected to be replaced by solid-state drives (SSDs) due to several factors. The rise of SSDs can be attributed to their enhanced reliability compared to HDDs, the ongoing trend of device miniaturization, and the decreasing costs of silicon-based technologies. This transition has already taken place in the realm of portable electronics, where SSDs have overtaken the HDD market. For instance, while the initial iPod relied on miniature HDDs due to the unavailability of SSDs, modern portable electronic devices universally incorporate some form of flash memory.

Looking ahead, it is highly likely that mainstream desktop computers will predominantly utilize SSDs for operating system purposes, delivering rapid boot times. As an optional addition, a secondary HDD may be included to provide extensive local storage capacity. However, as the world increasingly adopts cloud technologies, the necessity for these local HDDs may diminish, leading to a gradual withdrawal of HDDs from mainstream usage and their concentration in data center markets.

For SSDs to effectively replace HDDs, it is crucial that the cost of SSDs becomes comparable to that of HDDs. Additionally, engineers must address the limited read/write cycles of NAND flash memory, a common challenge associated with SSDs. Promising solutions such as spintronics, which purportedly offer an infinite number of write cycles, could potentially alleviate this issue. Nonetheless, ongoing research is exploring various non-volatile memory technologies, making it uncertain which particular technology will ultimately surpass HDDs in the future.

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Yes, you can use both an SSD and an HDD in the same computer. This setup allows you to enjoy the best of both worlds: the SSD can be used for the operating system and applications to benefit from faster boot and loading times, while the HDD can be used for storing large files, such as videos, photos, and documents, where speed is less critical but storage space is appreciated.

SSDs are generally more resistant to temperature fluctuations than HDDs because they do not contain mechanical parts that can be affected by heat. However, extreme temperatures can still affect the lifespan and performance of an SSD. HDDs, with their moving parts, are more susceptible to damage or failure in extreme temperatures, especially when operating in high heat, as it can cause expansion and contraction of components, leading to wear and potential failure.

Data recovery from a failed HDD is often possible but can be complex and expensive, especially if mechanical failure requires cleanroom work. SSD data recovery can be more challenging due to the way data is stored and managed within the drive. While not impossible, SSD data recovery techniques are different and can be more costly. In both cases, success rates can vary, and it’s always recommended to have a current backup to avoid data loss.

SSDs typically use less power than HDDs because they don't have mechanical parts that need to be powered. In contrast, HDDs require energy to spin the disks and move the read/write heads, which contributes to higher power consumption. This makes SSDs a more energy-efficient choice, particularly for laptops and mobile devices where battery life is crucial.

Susith Nonis

Susith Nonis

I'm fascinated by the IT world and how the 1's and 0's work. While I venture into the world of Technology, I try to share what I know in the simplest way with you. Not a fan of coffee, a travel addict, and a self-accredited 'master chef'.